As anyone who has ever filed income taxes can tell you, you have to know which tax bracket you’re in before you can make even an educated guess of what you might owe Uncle Sam.

It’s pretty easy to figure out your tax bracket because it’s based on your income, but it’s trickier to calculate how much you’ll actually owe because of the way the U.S. tax system works. We’ll explain how to do that in a moment. But first, here are the tax brackets for 2019, represented as the percentage of tax you’d pay on each portion of your income (more on that later).

### 2019 TAX BRACKETS

If you’re single (known as an individual filer), your brackets are:
10 percent: Up to \$9,700
12 percent: \$9,701 to \$39,475
22 percent: \$39,476 to \$84,200
24 percent: \$84,201 to \$160,725
32 percent: \$160,726 to \$204,100
35 percent: \$204,101 to \$510,300
37 percent: Over \$510,300

People who are married, but file separately (known as married filing separately), have the same tax brackets as individual filers until the top two. Those amounts are:

35 percent: \$204,101 to \$306,175
37 percent: Over \$306,175

If you’re married and file a single tax return as a couple (known as married filing jointly), your brackets are:
10 percent: Up to \$19,400
12 percent: \$19,401 to \$78,950
22 percent: \$78,951 to \$168,400
24 percent: \$168,401 to \$321,450
32 percent: \$321,451 to \$408,200
35 percent: \$408,201 to \$612,350
37 percent: Over \$612,350

If you’re unmarried, pay for more than half your household’s expenses and have a dependent (known as head of household), your brackets are:
10 percent: Up to \$13,850
12 percent: \$13,851 to \$52,850
22 percent: \$52,851 to \$84,200
24 percent: \$84,201 to \$160,700
32 percent: \$160,701 to \$204,100
35 percent: \$204,101 to \$510,300
37 percent: Over \$510,300

So what you owe in taxes is the income on your W-2 form multiplied by your tax bracket percentage, right? Not so fast.

For starters, the income on your W-2 isn’t likely to be the amount that you’re actually taxed on. That’s because when you file, you’re probably going to take deductions that will lower your taxable income, whether that’s the standard deduction or a host of other deductions you choose to itemize on your tax return. Your 1040 form helps you determine what your taxable income will be.

Second, the U.S. income tax system is a progressive tax, not a flat tax. That means as your income rises, so does the percentage that you pay in taxes — and your income is actually taxed in chunks at graduated rates that follow the steps of the tax brackets.

Here’s a simple example of what we mean. Let’s say you’re single and after deductions, your taxable income is \$50,000, which lands you in the 22 percent tax bracket. You won’t be paying 22 percent on all \$50,000. Rather …

• The first \$9,700 will be taxed at 10 percent, which equals \$970
• The dollars between \$9,701 and \$39,475 (or \$29,774) will be taxed at 12 percent, or about \$3,573
• The dollars between \$39,476 and \$50,000 (or \$10,524) will be taxed at 22 percent, or about \$2,315.

So in this example, your total tax owed would be \$6,858.

Your marginal tax bracket is the tax rate you paid on your last dollar of income and is how you determine which tax bracket you’re in. Your effective tax rate, meanwhile, is the percentage of your income that you paid in taxes after all was said and done — in this case, about 14 percent (\$6,858/\$50,000).

### CHANGING TAX BRACKETS

Of course, your tax bracket and effective tax rate aren’t something that you figure out once and then never again. For instance, when you get a raise, it could push you into the next higher tax bracket. On the flip side, if your income drops or you become eligible to take more deductions, you could fall into a lower tax bracket. Also, keep in mind your bracket could change because the IRS can change the income ranges that apply to each bracket, or because the government can enact new legislation. So make sure you check each year to see what the new tax brackets are, and how that could impact the amount you will pay.